Week 2: Black Lives Matter

Day 1: HIIT Workout

African Americans make up around 12 to 13% of the population, but only 0.8% of Fortune 500 CEOs.
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There are a multitude of inequalities in the workplaces of the United States. At the highest level of businesses, the CEOs, there is a miniscule amount of black representation. In fact, 0.8 percent of Fortune 500 CEOs are representatives of the black population of the US.  There have been six total black CEOs of Fortune 500 Companies, the largest companies in the nation. Today, there are only four black CEOS in the Fortune 500 realm. There are 500 CEOs.

Black men and women together make up only eight percent of the professional, white collar workforce. Compared to the percentage of representation in the US population, the percentage of white collar workforce is not an accurate representation.  This disparity has its roots embedded in various other racial issues, such as access to education and application discrimination.

 Historically, the wages of black people have been less than the wages of white people, and so the question of past salaries puts the black applicant behind the white before they are even offered an interview, or their application is passed to the next step.  This is one of the many causes of the lack of black representation in higher paying, professional or business jobs in the United States.

There are only 4 black Fortune 500 CEOS. Here they are.

How many black Fortune 500 CEOs are there? Only four in 2020

Why Aren’t Black Employees Getting More White-Collar Jobs?


8 sets   

  • 13 squats
  • 13 crunches
  • 13 pushups

Day 2: 2 mile cardio

The Black unemployment rate is twice as high as thee white unemployment rate. 
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There are many causes of unemployment within the United States.  For black citizens of the nation, though, discrimination based on the color of their skin is an added factor that contributes to unemployment.  During COVID-19, the unemployment rate of black men has reached 16.1%, and 16.4% for black women.  Both rates more than doubled, from 7% and 5% respectively.  Although, white men’s unemployment rate started at 3.7%, and is now around 12.4%- both values are significantly less than those of the black community. 

It can also be noticed that originally, the unemployment of black men was more than double that of white men. Also, the average of the black men and women’s unemployment rates, 6%, is close to double that of the white man’s unemployment rate.  

Interestingly, the unemployment rate for black citizens is highest during the ages most start having their own families, from 25 to 34.  This is one of the most vital times in someone’s life to have a job, as people have to support themselves as well as their growing family.  That spike is not present in the white population, and the highest unemployment rates are found where one might expect them- during the age range of 20 to 24, when most people are students, and their main job is school.

There are a few contributors to the disparity between black and white unemployment rates. One cause of the difference is living patterns.  Blacks are more likely to live in economically depressed areas, where income levels are much lower than those in the white neighborhoods.  This is a deeply rooted issue that can be traced back to the segregation of cities and towns by race, with blacks being placed in locations with lower access to good paying jobs. A combination of efforts by the police force and housing authorities caused segregation of races in living areas, and the prices of black homes were inflated, further harming the economic status of black communities.  With this de jure segregation, or government sponsored segregation, black societies have been economically suppressed since the years of segregation, and continue to be today.  The lower economic status of black communities can be directly connected to the lack of access to the kind of jobs available in white communities, both by location and by the long standing discriminatory ideas that black people should not have access to those jobs.

The information found above, and more, regarding unemployment rates and their connection to de jure segregation can be found in the following sources:

E-16. Unemployment rates by age, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Unemployment rate during COVID-19 highest among Hispanic and Black Americans

“The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America” by Richard Rothstein 


2 miles of cardio UPDATE THIS VID**

Day 3: Lower Body Workout

From 2013 to 2017, white patients received better quality healthcare than 40% of black patients
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Throughout history, black patients have been subject to more second-rate health care than white patients. Differences in treatment and care of numerous illnesses, such as diabetes, cardiac issues and organ transplants, can be tied directly to racial discrimination. The National Academy of Medicine has performed numerous studies, finding that death by a multitude illnesses can be linked to inferior levels of care given by physicians to people of color. 

The difference in care can be connected to both conscious and unconscious biases of physicians in the medical field. The bias that directly contributes to differences in care is known as implicit bias, that leads to cases of unintentional maltreatment of black patients. Black patients consequently receive less attention, and medication required to treat or address illnesses, than white patients.  It has also been found that black women receive even lower quality healthcare than black men.

For these reasons, it would make sense that at least forty percent of black patients receive lower quality healthcare treatment than white patients. The implicit bias within physicians causes a disparity in care giving based on the race of the patient.

For more information regarding disparities in health care treatment by race, visit the following websites where the information above was found:

Implicit Bias and Racial Disparities in Health Care

An Examination of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care

Race, Ethnicity, Culture, and Disparities in Health care

11 facts about racial discrimination


5 sets of: 

  • 40 squats
  • 40 jump squats
  • 40 walking lunges

Day 4: 30 minute interval workout

The black maternal mortality rate is 3.3 times greater than the white maternal mortality rate.
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Although police brutality is a common discussion surrounding the racial mistreatment and inequalities in the United States, there are discrepancies within the healthcare system as well.  Specifically, between black women and white women, health complications during and due to pregnancies is much greater in frequency among the former group. 

Hypertensive disorders are one of the leading causes of maternal mortality due to pregnancy.  Some of these disorders are preeclampsia, gestational and chronic hypertension.  Black women are more likely to experience hypretensive disorders due to pregnancy than white women, and so they are more likely to pass away from the symptoms of pregnancy.  

According to studies regarding healthcare treatment, a solution to the differences in maternal mortality would be replacing implicit bias within healthcare with equal treatment regardless of a patient’s race.  Additionally, standardizing protocols to respond to chances of maternal mortality across all healthcare locations, no matter the community they serve, would help decrease the prevalence of implicit bias, and increase the quality of care for black mothers-to-be.

For more information regarding maternal mortality, where the information above was found, visit the following websites: 

Racial and Ethnic Disparities Continue in Pregnancy-Related Deaths | CDC Online Newsroom

Hypertensive disease of pregnancy and maternal mortality


30 minutes of cardio with 30 second sprint every 3 minutes 

Possible options: running, cycling, rowing, swimming

Day 5: Core workout

Nearly half (45%) of African Americans report having experienced racial discrimination when trying to rent an apartment or buy a home
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Though restrictive covenants were prohibited under Shelley v. Kraemer (1948) and again in the 1968 Fair Housing Act, the issue of housing discrimination persists, even fifty years later. While many claim that this type of discrimination is a rare occurrence, evidence points to the fact that the President himself, Donald Trump, is guilty of such discrimination.

Sheila Morse, an employee of the NYC Human Rights Division, remembers a client of hers who was denied an apartment on the basis of race. The black man who reported the incidence said that he had seen a Brooklyn apartment with the sign “apartment for rent”. When he went to meet with the superintendent, he was told that the apartment was rented, and the sign should have been taken down. When Morse (who was white) went to the building to ask about the same apartment, it appeared to now be for sale, and she was shown every aspect of the apartment. The building superintendent worked for Trump Management. 

After a case that spanned over the course of two years, a settlement was made that required the Trumps to publish newspaper ads welcoming black applicants, and familiarize themselves with the Fair Housing Act. Trump was not required to admit his guilt, nor were there any serious repercussions.

Though this particular case occurred several decades ago, this theme of discrimination has continued. Last month, on May 18, 2020, a lawsuit was filed against several managers of multifamily housing communities in Georgia, on the basis of discrimination. From 2012 to 2020, the managers had allegedly steered black applicants away from a predominantly white housing complex and into a predominantly black one. The complexes are in close proximity to one another. The case also states that elderly or disabled African Americans faced even greater discrimination, and were given less favorable rental terms, clearly in violation of the 1968 Fair Housing Act.

This information, and much more, can be found on the websites listed below:

AAPF Housing Discrimination 

Atlanta-Based Landlords Accused of Discriminating Against Blacks 

Housing discrimination underpins the staggering wealth gap between blacks and whites 

Discrimination in America: Experiences and Views – RWJF 


4 sets of 5 x 45 second exercises

  • 45 second plank
  • 45 seconds reverse crunches
  • 45 seconds flutter kicks
  • 45 seconds leg raises (lay down on back, sit on hands)
  • 45 seconds toe taps or “penguins”

Day 6: 1000 rep challenge

Institutions where black Americans disproportionately receive their credentials spend an average of about 1000$ less per student than institutions that have an overwhelmingly white demographic.
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For decades, the United States has taken pride in its institutions, and the educational opportunities that are offered by those institutions. There are some universities that are historically black, not necessarily a result of segregation but rather a natural trend or choice. However, recent data has shown that these predominantly black institutions, known as HBCUs, are underfunded and lack the support that PWIs receive. 

Several years ago in Maryland, a federal judge found that specialty programs created by traditionally white schools often led to a form of “separate but equal”, which did not benefit the black community at all. Additionally, the Association of Public and Land-grant universities found that historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) were underfunded by $56 million. 

Typically, the federal government contribution toward Land grant universities is matched by the state government. However, it was discovered that historically white institutions were receiving this matched funding from the state of Maryland, while HBCUs did not receive those funds. According to Trisha Bishop of the Baltimore Sun, “One in five African-American college graduates earned their degrees at HBCUS; black colleges graduated nearly all black students (90 percent) who earned bachelor’s degrees in STEM fields between 2006 and 2010; black colleges produce half of all black public school teachers, half of all future lawyers and eight in 10 black judges.” Well funded historically black institutions are a fundamental part of a diversified and equal education system in America, and without them, black students would be losing countless opportunities. 

Without this much needed funding, tuition is raised, and the quality of education decreases. In a nation that is already plagued with racial inequalities, educational discrepancies including this lack of funding only make it more difficult to be a Black person in America. 

Recent Findings Question State Support Of Black Colleges 

The Neglected College Race Gap: Racial Disparities Among College Completers 


1000 rep challenge

  • 100 crunches
  • 200 mountain climbers
  • 100 calf raises
  • 100 bodyweight squats
  • 200 jumping jacks
  • 100 skaters
  • 100 russian twists
  • 100 pushups

Day 7: 19 minute cardio

19% of African Americans say they have experienced discrimination when trying to vote or participate in politics.
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 The United States of America’s founding principles embrace the ideals of freedom and equality, but it is a nation built on the systematic exclusion and suppression of communities of color. The 15th Amendment to the Constitution states that the right of any citizen of the United States to vote cannot be denied on the basis of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 ensures that state and local governments could not pass laws or policies that deny American citizens the equal right to vote based on race. However, countless black Americans continue to experience disenfranchisement and discrimination when trying to vote or participate in politics.

In 2013, the Supreme Court ruled in a case called Shelby County v. Holder that Section 4b of the Voting Rights Act, which designated the jurisdictions with a history of discrimination, and Section 5, which required that the identified jurisdictions submit any proposed changes in voting procedures to the U.S Department of Justice or a federal district D.C. court before it went into effect, were unconstitutional. This critical piece of legislation was a key player in preventing minority voters from being harmed. Without it, states with a history of overt white supremacy and voter suppression could once again manipulate their voting policies and procedures without first seeking approval from federal officials. This ruling came after the 2012 federal election cycle, in which black voters had a higher turnout than white voters. 

The response to Shelby County v. Holder was predictable., North Carolinian lawmakers rushed to impose strict voter identification requirements. The NAACP of North Carolina filed a suit against the identification requirement, claiming that “only those types of photo ID disproportionately held by whites and excluded those disproportionately held by African Americans.” This law was eliminated only after a federal court ruled that North Carolina sought to target black voters. Nevertheless, countless other jurisdictions passed similar laws that continue to disenfranchise black voters.

Another issue regarding black voter suppression has come to light given the current Coronavirus pandemic. Under the current circumstances, voting in person is no longer a viable option for most voters. Therefore, many states have turned to mail-in ballots. In the recent Georgia primaries, election officials require voters to use their own postage when submitting mail in absentee ballots and applications. Postage costs money. Thus, Georgia has imposed a poll tax in violation of the Constitution. While paying for postage might seem like a miniscule problem to upper and middle class voters, marginalized voters who come from communities who have historically faced over a century of racist voter suppression, including the use of poll taxes to disenfranchise voters, and who rightfully refuse to pay another cent for the right to vote.

Voters who decided to make the journey to the polls in Georgia all experience disenfranchisement. Marneia Mitchell, an black woman from in the same neighborhood that Martin Luther King Jr. grew up, waited in line for hours on end despite the nearly 90 degree weather. “It’s disgusting,” she said. “It’s despicable.” Another woman named Terri Russell, a 57 year old with bronchitis and asthma, had also been waiting in the line. She requested an absentee ballot in order to vote from the safety of her home, but never received one. “I refuse not to be heard and so I am standing in line,” she said.

‘I Refuse Not to Be Heard’: Georgia in Uproar Over Voting Meltdown 

Systematic Inequality and American Democracy 

Shelby County v. Holder 

overruled New York’s withdrawal 


19 continuous minutes of cardio

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